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The differences between microcontrollers mainly include what is a microcontroller, AVR, ARM, 8051 and PIC microcontrollers and their applications.
What is a microcontroller?
A microcontroller can compete with a small stand-alone computer; It is an extremely powerful device, capable of performing a series of pre-programmed tasks and interacting with additional hardware devices. Packaged in a miniature integrated circuit (IC) of usually negligible size and weight, it is becoming the perfect controller for robots, or any machine that needs some kind of intelligent automation. A single microcontroller is enough to manage small mobile robots, automatic washing machines or security systems. Some microcontrollers contain a memory to store the program to be executed, and many input/output lines that can be used in conjunction with other devices, such as reading the status of a sensor or controlling a motor.
The 8051 microcontroller is a family of 8-bit microcontrollers developed by Intel in 1981. This is one of a series of popular microcontrollers used around the world. The microcontroller is also known as a “system-on-chip” because it has 128 bytes of RAM, 4 KB of ROM, 2 timers, 1 serial port, and 4 ports on a single chip. Since the 8051 is an 8-bit processor, the CPU can also process 8-bit data at a time. If the data is larger than 8 bits, it must be broken up into sections so that the CPU can process it easily. Most manufacturers include 4Kbytes of ROM, even though the number of ROMs can exceed 64K bytes.
The 8051 has been used in a large number of devices, mainly because it is easy to integrate into projects or approximate manufacturing devices. The following are the main areas of focus:
Efficient metering systems help control energy use in home and manufacturing applications. These metering systems are prepared by combining microcontrollers.
A large number of microcontroller vendors have incorporated touch sensing capabilities into their designs. Portable electronic devices such as mobile phones, media players, and gaming devices are examples of microcontroller-based touch screens.
The 8051 is widely used to provide automotive solutions. They are widely used in hybrid cars to handle engine variants. In addition, features such as cruise control and anti-braking systems have been prepared through the use of microcontrollers.
Mobile medical devices, such as blood pressure and glucose monitors, use microcontrollers to display data, thus providing greater reliability of medical outcomes.
Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) is a microcontroller developed by Microchip. Compared with other microcontrollers such as 8051, PIC microcontroller implementation program is fast and simple. Easy to program and easy to connect with other peripherals PIC has become a successful microcontroller.
We know that a microcontroller is an integrated chip consisting of RAM, ROM, CPU, TIMER and COUNTERS. PIC is a microcontroller, which also includes RAM, ROM, CPU, timer, counter, ADC (analog-to-digital converter), DAC (digital-to-analog converter). PIC microcontroller also supports CAN, SPI, UART and other protocols for connecting with other peripherals. PIC is primarily used to modify the Harvard architecture, and by requiring RISC above and Harvard also supporting RISC (Reduced instruction set Computers), we can simply say that PIC is faster than the 8051 based controller prepared by the von-Newman architecture.
AVR microcontroller was developed by Atmel in 1996. The structural design of the AVR was developed by Alf-Egil Bogen and Vegard Wollan. AVR takes its name from its developer, which stands for alf-Egil Bogen Vegard Wollan RISC microcontroller, also known as Advanced Virtual RISC. The AT90S8515 was the original microcontroller based on the AVR architecture, although the first microcontroller to enter the commercial market was the AT90S1200 in 1997.
AVR microcontrollers fall into three categories
TinyAVR: – Less memory, small size, only suitable for simpler applications
MegaAVR: – These are mainly popular, have lots of memory (up to 256 KB), more built-in peripherals, and are suitable for moderate to complex applications.
XmegaAVR: – For commercial use in complex applications that require large program memory and high speed.
An ARM processor is also one of a family of cpus developed by advanced RISC Machines (ARM) based on the RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture.
ARM manufactures 32-bit and 64-bit RISC multicore processors. RISC processors are designed to execute fewer types of computer instructions so that they can run at higher speeds, executing millions of additional instructions per second (MIPS). By stripping unnecessary instructions and optimizing paths, RISC processors provide excellent performance with some of the power requirements of CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computing) programs.
ARM processors are widely used in customer electronic devices such as smartphones, tablets, media players and other mobile devices such as wearables. Because they are reduced to an instruction set, they require fewer transistors, making the bare chip size of an integrated circuit (IC) smaller. The smaller size of ARM processors reduces difficulty and power consumption, making them suitable for increasingly miniaturized devices.